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عرض العناصر حسب علامة : Egypt

وافقت هيئة كبار العلماء فى اجتماعها، اليوم الثلاثاء، برئاسة الإمام الأكبر الدكتور أحمد الطيب، شيخ الأزهر الشريف، على مشروع قانون لتعديل قانون العقوبات، المادة 242 مكرر، بشأن تغليظ العقوبات الخاصة بختان الإناث.

وكانت وزارة الشئون النيابية والتشريعية قد أحالت إلى هيئة كبار العلماء مشروع القانون لإبداء الرأى وذلك وفقا لاختصاص الهيئة.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

المصدر

http://www.youm7.com/story/2016/11/29/%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%A6%D8%A9-%D9%83%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%81%D9%82-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B9-%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%AA%D8%BA%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%B8-%D8%B9%D9%82%D9%88%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D8%AE%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%86/2989346

 

نشر في الأخبار

The first doctor in Egypt to be convicted of carrying out female genital mutilation (FGM) served just three months of his sentence, despite the case being seen as a landmark in curbing the practice by campaigners and the UN.

Sohair al-Bata’a, 13, died at the hands of Raslan Fadl in 2013, although Fadl still denies performing the operation that killed her. Her case prompted outrage among both local and international observers, seen as a rare opportunity for conviction for a practice that is widespread despite being officially banned in Egypt in 2008.

After an initial acquittal, Fadl was sentenced in January 2015 to two years and three months in prison for involuntary manslaughter, but avoided serving his sentence. Leila Fadel, a journalist with the US National Public Radio, tracked him down in December 2015, and found him to be continuing to practise medicine in a public hospital near his home town of Mansoura.

According to Reda Eldanbouki, from the Women’s Centre for Guidance and Legal Awareness who represented Sohair during the trial, it took until April this year for Fadl to turn himself in. He did so, the lawyer said, after reconciling with the Bata’a family, which annulled two years of his sentence. Fadl then served three months in prison, until 2 July.

“The family are party to the crime, and this shouldn’t have happened,” said Eldanbouki. In the retrial of January 2015, prosecutors argued that Sohair’s father had forced the 13-year-old to submit to the procedure, which involves the cutting of the genitals and sometimes the entire removal of the clitoris.

“There need to be clearer classification of crimes related to FGM,” explained Dalia Abdel-Hamid of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights in Cairo. “Because then there would be no room for reconciliation.”

Abdel-Hamid explained that had Fadl been convicted of a more serious crime than involuntary manslaughter, he would not have had the option to reconcile with the Bata’a family and later walk free.

“There is a lack of political will, meaning no pressure to implement the law – it doesn’t even stop at the stage of failing to arrest those who are already sentenced for practising FGM,” she explained.

“The clear fact that there was no single report coming from the state itself shows the state doesn’t fulfil its role to protect the women right to health and life. The state has a responsibility to supervise the clinics – plus public and private hospitals,” said Abdel-Hamid.

 

Egypt’s government has pledged to eliminate FGM by 2030. According to data published by Unicef, 74% of Egyptian girls aged 15-17 have undergone the practice, while 54% of women and 57% of men surveyed support it. Unicef’s research showed that rates of FGM were slowly falling as of 2008, especially among young women. However, more than 90% of married Egyptian women had suffered the practice.

“We will bring up the example of this case during the Mayar trial to make sure that nothing like this happens again,” said Eldanbouki, referring to the forthcoming trial of a doctor following the death of Mayar Mohamed Mousa in the province of Suez. Mousa, 17, died undergoing the procedure at a private hospital.

Observers say they are most concerned by the number of doctors carrying out the practice: 82% of FGM procedures are undertaken by those with medical training, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/02/egyptian-doctor-convicted-of-fgm-death-serves-three-months-in-jail المصدر 

 
نشر في الأخبار
الأربعاء, 27 تموز/يوليو 2016 02:25

Local Egyptian heroine aims to end “huge” suffering caused by FGM

ASSIUT, Egypt – In her daily life, Hoda Hamed, is a quiet 37-year-old kindergarten teacher. But when she is off the clock, she is a force of nature. Ms. Hamed is an outspoken advocate for women and girls, working tirelessly to convince her rural Egyptian community to abandon female genital mutilation (FGM).

“We go about our day as if nothing happened, but the amount of suffering we go through as women who had FGM is huge,” she said.

Ms. Hamed underwent FGM as a child. The experience was excruciating and traumatic, leaving her with deep scars. But it was only when she attended a UNFPA-supported training session that she learned that FGM was a harmful and unnecessary practice, one with lasting effects on girls’ and women’s health.

FGM can cause chronic pain, infections, complications during childbirth, infertility and, in the worst cases, even death. It increases the risk of HIV transmission, is linked to depression, and is internationally recognized as a violation of women’s and girls’ rights.

“Sitting through one of these awareness sessions transformed me,” she said. “I decided that I would not allow my daughters to be cut.”

She soon began to advocate for the abandonment of FGM in her village.

A revolutionary stance
In many ways, Ms. Hamed’s stance is revolutionary. Despite the fact that FGM is illegal, the overwhelming majority of Egyptian women have been subjected to it. According to a 2014 survey, 92 per cent of adult women have been cut.

“It is difficult to convince people to let go of this tradition,” Ms. Hamed said. “Most of them believe it is a religious requirement.”

While FGM remains prevalent everywhere in the country, the incidence is even greater in rural and impoverished areas. “Ignorance and illiteracy are the main reasons for the continuation of a horrible practice like FGM,” she explained.

Ms. Hamed organizes group sessions, supported by UNFPA, to raise awareness of the harms caused by the practice. She explains that it is not a requirement of any religion, and that it is a violation of girls’ rights. She also visits families to speak directly with parents and young adults. In some cases, she evens threaten to report parents to the police.

Many people resist her message. “They continue to endorse it despite having been made aware of the dangers associated with it,” she said.

But Ms. Hamed is tireless. She works not only with women and girls, but also with men, gaining as much support as possible. “It’s very important for men to know the harmful physical and psychological consequences of FGM,” she noted.

Thanks to her efforts, and those of like-minded reformers in her area, her village has collectively declared that has abandoned FGM.

- See more at: http://www.unfpa.org/news/local-egyptian-heroine-aims-end-%E2%80%9Chuge%E2%80%9D-suffering-caused-fgm#sthash.MPYXHUSS.dpuf“Sitting through one of these awareness sessions transformed me,” she said. “I decided that I would not allow my daughters to be cut.”

She soon began to advocate for the abandonment of FGM in her village.

A revolutionary stance
In many ways, Ms. Hamed’s stance is revolutionary. Despite the fact that FGM is illegal, the overwhelming majority of Egyptian women have been subjected to it. According to a 2014 survey, 92 per cent of adult women have been cut.

“It is difficult to convince people to let go of this tradition,” Ms. Hamed said. “Most of them believe it is a religious requirement.”

While FGM remains prevalent everywhere in the country, the incidence is even greater in rural and impoverished areas. “Ignorance and illiteracy are the main reasons for the continuation of a horrible practice like FGM,” she explained.

Ms. Hamed organizes group sessions, supported by UNFPA, to raise awareness of the harms caused by the practice. She explains that it is not a requirement of any religion, and that it is a violation of girls’ rights. She also visits families to speak directly with parents and young adults. In some cases, she evens threaten to report parents to the police.

Many people resist her message. “They continue to endorse it despite having been made aware of the dangers associated with it,” she said.

But Ms. Hamed is tireless. She works not only with women and girls, but also with men, gaining as much support as possible. “It’s very important for men to know the harmful physical and psychological consequences of FGM,” she noted.

Thanks to her efforts, and those of like-minded reformers in her area, her village has collectively declared that has abandoned FGM.
The next hurdle: Medicalization
Ms. Hamed now has her sights set on areas outside her village – and on the next generation of decision makers. - See more at: http://www.unfpa.org/news/local-egyptian-heroine-aims-end-%E2%80%9Chuge%E2%80%9D-suffering-caused-fgm#sthash.MPYXHUSS.dpuf

“I have educated my daughters about the harmful effects of FGM, and I encourage them to be active advocates in their communities,” she told UNFPA.

FGM is less likely to occur among younger women, but the difference is modest. Ninety-five per cent of women aged 45 to 49 have been subjected to the practice, compared to 87 per cent of those 15 to 19 years old.

“We need to have a real change! There must be a way to raise the awareness of those young girls and boys who soon will become mothers and fathers,” Ms. Hamed said. “The hope lies in their future decisions.”

Alarmingly, the 2014 survey found that support for FGM remains high. And among today’s generation of girls, more than 8 out of 10 FGM cases are performed by trained medical personnel. This phenomenon, known as the medicalization of FGM, threatens to perpetuate the practice by making it seem medically sound while failing to acknowledge it as a human rights violation.
UNFPA and UNICEF jointly operate a programme seeking to eliminate FGM, focusing on policy changes, law enforcement and the role of health professionals. It also supports television campaigns and community theatre programmes, and works with religious leaders and community activists like Ms. Hamed.

“There is always hope!” Ms. Hamed said. “And it is never too late to change one’s mind.”

the source

-  http://www.unfpa.org/news/local-egyptian-heroine-aims-end-%E2%80%9Chuge%E2%80%9D-suffering-caused-fgm#sthash.MPYXHUSS.dpuf

نشر في الأخبار

  المكتب المرجعي للسكان (PRB) .  تقرير عن تشويه الأعضاء التناسلية للإناث / الختان في الولايات المتحدة  وتوفير معلومات إضافية عن النساء والفتيات المعرضة للخطر. البيانات الواردة في هذا التقرير  بيانات أولية سيتم الافصاح عنهم قريبا.

 تشويه الأعضاء التناسلية للأنثى  (ختان الإناث)، التي تنطوي على الإزالة الجزئية أو الكلية للأعضاء التناسلية الخارجية للفتيات والنساء لأسباب دينية أو ثقافية أو غيرها غير طبية، وتلك الممارسات لها تأثرات الصحية الفورية والطويلة الأجل والآثار الاجتماعية، خصوصا فيما يتعلق بالولادة. هذا النوع من العنف ضد المرأة يشكل انتهاكا لحقوق الإنسان( للمرأة). هناك أكثر من 3 ملايين الفتيات، والأغلبية في أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء الكبرى، الذين هم عرضة لخطر قطع / تشويهالاعضاء التناسلية  كل عام. في جيبوتي، وغينيا، والصومال، تعرض تسعة في 10 فتيات من سن 15 إلى 19 إلى ختان الإناث / C. وبعض البلدان في أفريقيا حظرت مؤخرا هذه الممارسة، بما في ذلك غينيا بيساو، ولكن لم يكن التقدم في القضاء على هذه الممارسة التقليدية الضارة ببط على الرغم من أن ختان الإناث / C هو الأكثر انتشارا في أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء الكبرى، وأنماط الهجرة العالمية قد زادت من مخاطر ختان الإناث / C بين النساء والفتيات اللاتي يعشن في البلدان المتقدمة، بما في ذلك الولايات المتحدة.

على نحو متزايد، وواضعي السياسات والمنظمات غير الحكومية، وقادة المجتمع يتحدث علنا ​​ضد هذه الممارسة التقليدية الضارة. كما توافر المزيد من المعلومات حول هذه الممارسة، فإنه من الواضح أن ختان الإناث . يحتاج إلى الكشف عنهم والطعن في جميع أنحاء العالم.

أقر الكونغرس الأميركي قانونا في عام 1996 مما يجعلها غير قانونية لأداء ختان الإناث  . 23 دول لديها قوانين ضد practice.2 وعلى الرغم من عقود من العمل في الولايات المتحدة وعالميا لمنع ختان الإناث ، فإنه لا يزال تقليد ضار كبير بالنسبة للملايين من الفتيات والنساء. في السنوات القليلة الماضية، تجدد الجهود لحماية الفتيات من خضوعه لهذا الإجراء على المستوى العالمي وفي السكان المهاجرين أسفرت عن نجاحات السياسة. في بريطانيا العظمى وفي بلدان أوروبية أخرى، ركزت موجة من الاهتمام على القضاء على هذه الممارسة بين السكان المهاجرين كبير من الفتيات والنساء الذين تم تشوية اعضائهم التناسلية  أو هي في خطر التعرض للختان وعلاوة على ذلك، في عام 2012 مرت الدورة 67 للجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة قرارا يحث الدول على إدانة كل الممارسات الضارة التي تؤثر على النساء والفتيات، وخاصة ختان الإناث . وكان قرار الأمم المتحدة خطوة هامة نحو إنهاء هذه الممارسة في جميع أنحاء العالم.

في الولايات المتحدة، والجهود المبذولة لوقف الأسر من إرسال بناتهم إلى بلدانهم الأصلية لا بد من تخفيض أدى إلى قانون 2013 مما يجعلها غير قانونية لنقل علم فتاة خارج الولايات المتحدة لغرض ختان الإناث . اكتسبت ممارسة ختان الإناث الاهتمام في الولايات المتحدة وذلك جزئيا بسبب ارتفاع عدد المهاجرين من البلدان التي لديها ختان الإناث  هو السائد، وخاصة أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء الكبرى. بين عامي 2000 و 2013، والسكان المولودين في الخارج من أفريقيا إلى أكثر من الضعف، من 881،000 إلى 1.8 مليون

خطر ختان الإناث في الولايات المتحدة

في عام 2013، كان هناك ما يصل إلى 507،000 امرأة في الولايات المتحدة والفتيات اللاتي خضعن لختان الإناث / C أو كانوا عرضة لخطر هذا الإجراء، وفقا لتحليل البيانات الأولية PRB . هذا الرقم هو أكثر من ضعف عدد النساء والفتيات يقدر أن يكون في خطر في عام 2000 (228،000) . الزيادة السريعة في النساء والفتيات المعرضات للخطر يعكس زيادة في الهجرة إلى الولايات المتحدة، بدلا من زيادة في حصة النساء والفتيات لخطر تشوية الاعضاء التناسلية 

تمثل  فقط ثلاثة بلدان هم مصر و الصومال وإثيوبيا،  55 في المئة من جميع النساء والفتيات الولايات المتحدة للخطر في عام 2013 (انظر الجدول 1). هذه البلدان الثلاثة تبرز لأن لديهم مزيج من ارتفاع ختان الإناث / معدلات انتشار الختان وعدد كبير نسبيا من المهاجرين إلى الولايات المتحدة. في ختان الإناث  معدل انتشار للنساء والفتيات الذين تتراوح أعمارهم 15 و 49 هو 91 في المئة في مصر و 74 في المئة في إثيوبيا، و 98 في المئة في الصومال. وكانت نحو 97 في المئة من النساء والفتيات الولايات المتحدة عرضة للخطر من البلدان الأفريقية، بينما كانت في المئة فقط 3 من آسيا (العراق واليمن)

 


U.S. Women and Girls at Risk of FGM/C
All Countries of Origin 506,795
   
Egypt 109,205
Ethiopia 91,768
Somalia 75,537
Nigeria 40,932
Liberia 27,289
Sierra Leone 25,372
Sudan 20,455
Kenya 18,475
Eritrea 17,478
Guinea 10,302
   
Other Countries of Origin

المصدر: مكتب الاحصاءات السكانية. تقديرات تخضع لكلا أخذ العينات والخطأ

 المصدر / المزيد

http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2015/us-fgmc.aspx

نشر في الأخبار
الثلاثاء, 23 كانون1/ديسمبر 2014 02:00

Is Egypt ready to join growing global movement to end FGM?

Source : The Guardian

Sunday 30 November 2014

With the first prosecutions under way in the UK  and Guinea-Bissau , an increased focus on strengthening the law in Kenya , and a rare conviction in Uganda , positive moves are being made in several countries to implement laws that ban female genital mutilation (FGM).

Against this increasingly optimistic backdrop, the verdict on 20 November in the case of Sohair al-Bata’a , a 13-year-old Egyptian girl who died after undergoing FGM in the Daqahliyah governorate, north-east of Cairo, was particularly disappointing. Both Sohair’s father and the doctor who carried out the mutilation were acquitted, despite the fact that a medical examiner’s report, endorsed by Egypt’s general attorney, confirmed that FGM had taken place. The judge, who was appointed to the case only recently, seemed to discount this unbiased expert evidence and instead acquitted both men. The verdict was not announced in court, but merely recorded in a ledger .

Egypt’s battle to eliminate FGM has been a tumultuous one. In 2006, its two most senior Islamic clerics stated  that FGM has no basis in religion. The following year, Egyptian medical professionals were banned from performing FGM after a 12-year-old girl died. 

It was this ban, backed by legislation introduced in 2008, that was used to prosecute Sohair’s father and the doctor in a very similar scenario, six years later. Even with good laws in place, justice can continue to be evasive. If laws are not implemented properly and the judicial system is not transparent, the perpetrators in cases such as Sohair’s will continue to go unpunished.

According to Unicef , more than 27.2 million Egyptian women and girls have been affected by FGM. This represents 91% of the female population, the biggest number for any one nationality. Of an estimated 100-140 million women affected by FGM globally, at least one in five is from Egypt. While figures for younger women and adolescent girls seem to be decreasing slowly, this abuse continues to have broad national support from various quarters, including professionals who are supposed to have a duty of care.

Egypt also leads the world in terms of one of the biggest risks to the global anti-FGM movement, that of the increasing trend towards its medicalisation, which fundamentally contradicts WHO guidelines. Incredibly, a 2012 academic document by Egyptian doctor Mohamed Kandil in F1000 Research, a peer-reviewed scientific journal, suggests there is “insufficient evidence to support the claims” that FGM type I  is harmful when performed by medical practitioners.

Unicef suggests that 77% of FGM in Egypt is carried out by doctors or other medical professionals – an increase of more than 100% since 1995. Despite leading the way globally in terms of a decrease in prevalence, Kenya  is also experiencing an increase in the medicalisation of FGM. Indonesia has yet to fully ban it, although the country recently revoked  its 2010 regulation, which allowed medical professionals to legally perform FGM. In the same year, Equality Nowsucceeded  in reversing the decision made by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to endorse Type IV FGM, when it suggested changes in the law to allow for a “ritual nick” or pricking of the clitoral skin.

All efforts to permit or make FGM supposedly “safer” conceal the severe violence it represents and hide its lifelong and life-threatening physical, emotional and psychological consequences. Sohair’s death tragically highlights FGM as an extreme violation of the human rights of girls and women with serious health risks, regardless of whether it is performed within or outside of the medical establishment.

Without strong messages from the Egyptian government, such as proper implementation of the law and swift punishment for the perpetrators, FGM may become more acceptable, with women’s rights increasingly subordinated at all levels. Part of the solution is ensuring that healthcare providers are given comprehensive education and training on the health and human rights implications of FGM.

Equality Now is currently working with local lawyers at the Centre for Egyptian Women’s Legal Assistance to ensure that Sohair gets justice – justice for one girl, but in the hope it sets a precedent to help ensure that countless others are protected. Egypt needs to decide which direction it would now like to take. 

Source link : http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/nov/30/egypt-join-global-movement-end-fgm-sohair-al-bataa

نشر في News
الثلاثاء, 23 كانون1/ديسمبر 2014 02:00

Egypt: Trial Shows Need to Combat Female Genital Mutilation

Lack of Investigations, Prosecutions, and Convictions Fosters FGM
NOVEMBER 27, 2014
Source: Human Rights Watch
 

(Beirut) – Egyptian authorities need to take clear action to end the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) following the country’s first trial on the crime ending in acquittals.

A trial this month in Egypt centered on the death of a 13-year-old girl in 2013. The doctor who cut the girl and the girl’s father who took her to the doctor were acquitted on November 20. The case highlights the need for serious steps by authorities to end FGM including implementation of the law and a national strategy to raise awareness of the harms of FGM. The public prosecution recently filed an appeal against the acquittal. 

“Female genital mutilation is banned in Egypt but the practice continues possibly because there is a lack of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions,” said Rothna Begum, researcher on women’s rights in the Middle East and North Africa division.

FGM involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical purposes. It interferes with the natural functioning of the body and has no known health benefits. The practice may lead to a variety of immediate and long-term health consequences, including severe pain, shock, infection, complications during childbirth affecting both the mother and the child being born, as well as long-term gynecological problems.

On June 6, 2013, 13-year-old Sohair al-Batea died following an FGM procedure after she had an allergic reaction to penicillin. Dr. Raslan Fadl Hallawa acknowledged performing the procedure, but claimed it was for medical purposes and not FGM.  He and Sohair al-Batea’s father came under investigation. The public prosecutor initiated criminal proceedings in March 2014 charging the doctor with manslaughter for causing the girl’s death by negligence, running a medical facility that does not meet medical requirements to treat patients, endangering the girl’s life, and committing the practice of female genital mutilation. The prosecutor charged her father with endangering her life and forcing her to undergo FGM.

Since the law banning FGM was amended in 2008, this single case of prosecution has resulted in a trial. Activists have reported that lack of prosecutions are due to local officials considering FGM to be a private family issue rather than dealing with the crime of FGM itself.

Egyptian authorities need to take steps to ensure effective implementation of the law criminalizing the harmful procedure by ensuring that there is adequate investigation and prosecution of those who carry out the FGM procedure, Human Rights Watch said. The government needs to initiate a national strategy to end FGM by raising awareness of the mental and physical harm it does, and of the law banning it.

“This case was an important test of Egypt’s legislation criminalizing female genital mutilation,” Begum said. “It is clearly not enough to just put a law on the statute books; it must be enforced.”

According to the memorandum of the public prosecutor on the case dated March 10, 2014, as available onShorouk news website , the evidence included a testimony from health inspector Ahmed Mosa, which described that the girl’s genitalia was cut and that she died from shock or circulatory failure. An initial post-mortem forensic report found that the doctor had not tested her for hypersensitivity to the penicillin that was used in the procedure which led to her death. An additional report from an expert committee headed by a senior forensic doctor stated that they could not confirm whether this was a FGM procedure or another medical procedure, as the doctor has claimed. The memorandum also includes investigation notes such as the father’s testimony.  He initially said he took his daughter for the FGM procedure, but then changed his testimony to claim she was experiencing abdominal pain. The public prosecutor concluded from the reports and its investigation that the procedure carried out was female genital mutilation.

The initial charge of manslaughter by negligence was settled out of court, with the doctor paying the family 5,001 Egyptian pounds (around US$700). On November 20, 2014, the minor offenses court in Agga, in Dakahlia governorate north east of Cairo, found the two men not guilty on the remaining charges. Human Rights Watch was not able to obtain the full verdict including the reasoning behind the acquittal.

According to a lawyer from the Women’s Center for Guidance and Legal Awareness, the public prosecutor filed an appeal with the minor offenses appeal court in Mansoura, capital of the Dakahlia governorate. 

In 2008, after the death of an 11-year-old girl following a FGM procedure, the Child Rights Law No. 126 amended the Penal Code to provide that anyone who causes injury through performing female genital mutilation can be sentenced to imprisonment for three months to two years, or fined between 1000-5000 Egyptian pounds (approximately US$700). The Sohair al-Batea case was the first case to go to trial on charges relating to female genital mutilation.

“Egypt may have a law on the books, but the lack of meaningful prosecutions or any convictions for such a widespread problem sends a message that it is okay to carry out FGM,” said Rothna Begum. “The authorities must send a clear message to the police, prosecution and the courts on investigating and prosecuting those who perform FGM.”

Female genital mutilation is a widespread practice in Egypt. A 2008 demographic and health survey  found that 91 percent of girls and women aged 15-49 years had undergone FGM. The study also suggested that the practice may be on the decline, with rates among women under age 25 at around 80 percent, compared with women aged 25-49, among whom between 94 and 96 percent were subject to female genital mutilation.

In 2007, the Grand Mufti of Egypt, who is the highest Islamic authority, issued  a fatwa (religious edict) that FGM was forbidden in Islam. However, some clerics continue to openly advocate the practice. The 2008 survey found that just under half of all women aged 15-49 believed that FGM was a religious requirement and just over half felt that the practice should continue. Whatever the reasons cited, FGM is an act of violence that is irreversible and without medical justification, and which has a lasting negative impact on girls’ and women’s physical, mental, and sexual health.

“Despite some signs that FGM might be decreasing, it still remains a widespread problem,” Begum said. “If Egypt wants to show it is serious about ending FGM, it must put in place a national strategy in addition to its law, with the inclusion of religious and community leaders, healthcare professionals, teachers, and civil society to raise awareness on the harms of FGM.”

The national strategy should include support for victims of FGM including medical and psychosocial assistance and it should establish official mechanisms to monitor the progress of eradication efforts.

Egypt is required under international human rights treaties to hold private actors accountable for violence against women, including FGM. As recently as November 4 , 2014, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child and the UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), which monitor implementation of children’s rights and women’s rights treaties that Egypt has ratified, issued a joint recommendation calling on states to eliminate harmful practices and formulate holistic strategies to end FGM.

Source link : http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/11/27/egypt-trial-shows-need-combat-female-genital-mutilation

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